Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal condition in female patients associated with enlarged ovaries as well as a lack of ovulation and an overproduction of male sex hormones.
About Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Androgens and estrogens are the two major classes of sex hormone your body produces. Individuals assigned male at birth typically produce higher levels of androgens, and individuals assigned female at birth have higher estrogen levels. While the exact cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown, the condition often involves elevated androgen levels in female patients.
The name “polycystic ovary syndrome” does not refer to large ovarian cysts but rather to polycystic ovaries, a common characteristic of PCOS in which ovarian follicles are enlarged and do not readily release eggs.
Many patients with PCOS experience insulin resistance or other metabolic irregularities. The condition can also increase your likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep apnea, or cancer.
Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
The varying symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome are caused by hormonal imbalances and/or resulting metabolic abnormalities. Symptoms typically first emerge in your teens or early 20s.
Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome may include:
- Alopecia (excessive hair loss)
- Hirsutism (excessive body hair)
- Menstrual irregularity
- Weight gain
Risk Factors for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is thought to affect 6-10% of the female population. Both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to condition onset.
Risk factors for polycystic ovary syndrome may include:
- Family history
- Lifestyle: While PCOS often is related to weight gain, obesity can aggravate the condition and an active lifestyle can help you manage symptoms.
- Comorbid conditions: Diabetes (Type 1, Type 2, and gestational) and epilepsy are associated with higher prevalence of PCOS.
Treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
There is no cure for polycystic ovary syndrome, but medication can be used to manage the condition. Oral contraceptive medication can regulate your menstrual cycle and hormone levels. Another medication, spironolactone, can block androgens from acting on cells. Additionally, lifestyle changes may be recommended to alleviate your symptoms. Your doctor will work with you to determine the best course of treatment.
Care Team Approach
Patients are cared for by a dedicated multidisciplinary care team, meaning you will benefit from the expertise of multiple specialists across a variety of disciplines. Our team of board-certified obstetricians and gynecologists, fellowship-trained subspecialists, pelvic floor physical therapists, advanced practice providers, and more work together to provide unparalleled care for patients every step of the way. We also work closely with referring physicians and other partners in the community to schedule and coordinate any additional care services you may need.
We collaborate with our colleagues at the Dell Medical School and The University of Texas at Austin to utilize the latest research, diagnostic, and treatment techniques, allowing us to deliver comprehensive, compassionate care and provide a seamless experience for women from adolescence to menopause and beyond.